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扎克伯格听证会表现怎样?看看肢体语言专家怎么说

Joe Navarro 2018年04月17日

对于扎克伯格上周二就数据隐私发表的言论和就Facebook所犯错误致歉,很多专家已经做了分析。但其实,扎克伯格表达的方式跟内容一样重要。

上周二和周三,Facebook首席执行官马克·扎克伯格在美国国会作证。不仅Facebook的用户,美国之外的政府、情报机关、银行、投资机构和倡导互联网隐私的人士都很关注。

对于扎克伯格上周二就数据隐私发表的言论和就Facebook所犯错误致歉,很多专家已经做了分析。但其实,扎克伯格表达的方式跟内容一样重要。

这场漫长的听证会上,我一直在仔细观察扎克伯格的肢体语言。听证会期间,他无论是保持冷静、回答问题,还是在外部形象上,都显得很有技巧,可他在运用肢体手势方面做得不够好,同时出席的高管表现也一般,整体来说好坏参半。

和我预料的一样,扎克伯格多数时候的举动让人感到放心:他尊重他人,称质询者“参议员”,即使面对此前被问多次或者毫无意义的问题时,他也很有耐心,而且流露了悔意。

同样不出所料的是,由于不擅长公开发言,扎克伯格也显示出内心不安的迹象。第一次落座时,他的身体略显僵硬又不自在,犹豫地四周打量。他喝第一口水动作极慢,等他完全咽下去我已经刷完自己的Facebook和Twitter账号。每隔一阵他就会有艰难的吞咽动作,这正是紧张的明显迹象。出席国会作证的人经常会反复抿住双唇。扎克伯格刚开始作证时眨眼的频率也比平常高,达到了每分钟50下左右,过了一阵他眨眼频率为每分钟30下,尽管仍然很高,但已经有所下降。

有趣的是,据我观察,扎克伯格面部表情显得最不安时,是因为参议员提出的问题含糊不清或者难以理解,而他在努力理解问题,表情是抿住双唇,眼睛眯缝同时眉间收窄(眉毛上方和中间位置)。

扎克伯格穿着深蓝色的西装,白色的衬衫。这身装扮符合人们对企业管理者的印象。他没有穿招牌灰色T恤,这点不错。但他在肢体动作方面还有改进空间。

在表述重要内容时,领导者需要自如地用一些大气的手势来强调重点。而出于习惯,扎克伯格喜欢用嗓音来突出重点,这就不对。讲话过程中如果运用得法,手势会比言辞更有力。

缺少手势还不是最明显的问题。坐在扎克伯格身后的Facebook高管也容易让他分心,高管们有时说话,发笑,甚至还在扎克伯格作证时看手机。在听到不喜欢的问题时,主管全球政策的Facebook副总裁乔尔·卡普兰就眯起眼睛,有时看起来又好像在努力回忆什么事。听到觉得烦心的问题时,Facebook的公共政策主管米瑞尔·乔丹会轻轻弹手指,把大拇指藏起来。她有时还撅起嘴,或者把嘴撇到一边,显得不满或不认同。相比扎克伯格,从高管的表情中更容易看出哪些问题或者哪些回答比较重要。从他们的表情还能看出对某些参议员的好感,比如看到奥林·哈奇时脸上表情比较轻松。

虽然下属们通过表情动作透露很多专家能看出的信息,但扎克伯格全程面无表情。由此可见,在听证会这个舞台上,不仅主角重要,台上所有人都很重要。

扎克伯格并不是在听证会上有意掩饰自己。其实,他也有些表现得紧张、焦虑、担心,有时也会不喜欢一些问题,但透露的信息不多。在那样一种环境下,显得内心不安才是自然的反应。总体而言,扎克伯格表现得真实、谦虚。这对他自己、全公司和公司股东都是好事。

这位社交媒体天才还算幸运,第一天的质询顺利完成,没有明显硬伤。他学习能力很强。我非常确信今后他会掌握公开讲话的技巧,面对全球观众也能侃侃而谈。(龙8国际|官网)

乔·纳瓦罗著有《FBI教你读心术:看穿肢体动作的真实讯息》(What Every BODY is Saying: An Ex-FBI Agent’s Guide to Speed-Reading People)一书。

译者:Pessy

审稿:夏林

 

Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg is testifying before Congress last Tuesday and Wednesday in an event being watched closely not just by Facebook users, but also foreign governments and intelligence agencies, banks, investment houses, and Internet privacy advocates.

Many experts have already analyzed Zuckerberg’s last Tuesday remarks about data privacy and apologizing for his company’s mistakes. But just as important as what Zuckerberg said was how he said it.

I examined Zuckerberg’s body language closely throughout the lengthy testimony. While the CEO was skillful in staying calm, answering questions, and visually presenting himself, he was less successful in his use of body gestures and supporting staff. The performance overall was a mixed bag.

For the most part, Zuckerberg comported himself as I expected: He was respectful, calling everyone “senator”; patient, even when the questions made no sense or had been asked many times before; and contrite.

As to be expected for someone not expert in public speaking, Zuckerberg showed signs of psychological discomfort. When he first sat down he was uncomfortably stiff and hesitated to look around. He took his first sip of water so slowly that I had time to check my Facebook and Twitter accounts before he was finished. He took hard swallows every once in a while, a telltale sign that someone is under stress. Zuckerberg compressed his lips many times, another sign of stress. People who testify before Congress often compress their lips repeatedly. His blink rate was higher than normal when he first started—above 50 beats per minute—but the rest of the time it was in the 30s, which is still elevated but less so.

Interestingly enough, the most psychological discomfort I saw on Zuckerberg’s face, as evidenced by simultaneous lip compression, eye squinting, and narrowing of the glabella (the area above and between the eyebrows), was when he was trying to decipher vague or unintelligible questions from the senators.

Zuckerberg dressed as required to manage perceptions, wearing a navy blue suit and white shirt. It’s good that he didn’t show up in his signature T-shirt. But he could have done better in other areas related to his physicality.

Leaders need to use broad, smooth, emphatic hand gestures to make points. Out of habit, Zuckerberg used his voice for emphasis; that was a mistake. Gestures are more powerful than words when employed skillfully.

But that wasn’t the only visual problem: The Facebook officers sitting behind Zuckerberg were often a distraction to his presentation, talking, laughing, and even checking their smartphones as the testimony wore on. Joel Kaplan, Facebook’s vice president of global policy, squinted when he heard questions he didn’t like and sometimes looked as if he were trying to recollect facts. Myriah Jordan, Facebook’s public policy director, flicked her fingers and hid her thumbs when questions bothered her, and pursed her lips or pulled them dramatically to the side to show discomfort or disagreement with something she heard. They were an easier read than Zuckerberg was as to which questions or answers were an issue. They even showed how they favored certain senators, such as Orrin Hatch, over others by relaxing their faces.

While his deputies gave up a lot of nonverbal information that experts can notice, Zuckerberg kept a poker face. This goes to show that in a theater production it is not just the lead actor who matters, but everyone on the stage.

Zuckerberg did not come across as deceptive in his testimony. Yes, there were moments of anxiety, nervousness, tension, and dislike of questions, but that tells us little. In such a setting, displays of psychological discomfort are only natural. Overall, Zuckerberg came across as authentic and humbled—a positive outcome for him, his company, and its shareholders.

The social media prodigy was fortunate to complete his first day of questioning without any visible wounds. Zuckerberg is a quick learner, and I have no doubt that in time he will master the art of public presentations to a global audience.

Joe Navarro is the author of What Every BODY is Saying: An Ex-FBI Agent’s Guide to Speed-Reading People.

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