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研究发现,重大经济损失会增加死亡风险

Jamie Ducharme 2018年04月19日

遭遇“财富重创”的人,早逝的概率要比财务状况稳定的人高得多,无论他们起初多么富有。

Bongkarn Thanyakij—Getty Images/iStockphoto

一项新研究指出,财务健康受损可能会影响你的身体健康。

本周二在《美国医学协会期刊》(JAMA)发表的一份研究报告发现,遭遇“财富重创”——即两年内损失了至少75%家庭净资产——的人,早逝的概率要比财务状况稳定的人高得多,无论他们起初多么富有。财富急剧减少对健康的威胁仅比贫困稍轻,而后者是多年来研究人员认为影响健康和寿命的因素之一。

西北大学(Northwestern University)和密歇根大学(University of Michigan)的科学家合作开展了这项研究,分析了超过8,000名51岁至61岁之间的美国成年人的财务和身体健康状况。研究人员对他们进行了大约20年的追踪,发现这期间有约25%的人遭遇了财富重创,死亡人数超过2,800人。近7%的人长期生活在贫困之中。

研究人员计算得出,出现重大经济损失之后,人们的死亡率会提升50%,而贫困则会提高67%的死亡率。他们还发现,如果财富重创导致人们失去了主要居所,寿命则会遭受更大的威胁。

研究人员写道,有几点因素可以解释财富重创的带来的巨大影响。首先,突发的经济危机可能会让人们难以承受医疗费用,或让人们倾向于推迟就医。逻辑上说,这种情况尤其适用于那些由于医疗费用昂贵而遭遇财富重创的人群。

净资产的急剧减少也会影响心理健康。研究人员指出,这可能会带来直接后果,例如自杀、抑郁或药物滥用,长期来看,压力也会导致健康问题。(财富中文网)

译者:严匡正

When your financial health takes a hit, your physical health may follow suit, according to new research.

A study published Tuesday in JAMA found that people who had a “negative wealth shock” — defined as losing at least 75% of their household net worth over a two-year period — were significantly more likely than financially stable folks to die early, regardless of how rich they were to start. A sudden drop in wealth was found to be only marginally less dangerous for health than living in poverty, which researchers have long associated with poorer health and longevity.

The study, which was carried out by researchers from Northwestern University and the University of Michigan, analyzed the financial and physical health of more than 8,000 American adults between the ages of 51 and 61. Over the approximately 20 years they were followed by researchers, roughly 25% of those individuals experienced a negative wealth shock and more than 2,800 died. Almost 7% were living in long-term poverty.

The researchers calculated that a significant monetary loss was associated with a 50% higher chance of dying during the follow-up period, while poverty was associated with a 67% higher chance of death. A financial disaster that caused people to lose their primary residence was even riskier for longevity, the researchers found.

The dramatic impact of a negative wealth shock could be explained by a few things, the researchers write. For one thing, sudden financial troubles may make it difficult to pay for medical care, or lead to a tendency to put off appointments. Logically, that effect is likely especially pronounced among people for whom a wealth shock was triggered by expensive medical issues.

A sharp decline in net worth can also take a toll on mental health. This may come with direct consequences, such as suicide, depression or substance abuse, as well as long-term health issues associated with stress, the researchers write.

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